Japan has played an interesting game with China; some might say it has taken an interesting gamble.
One senior carrier executive said that there would be “no negotiation” on bunker fuel surcharges beginning as early as 2019 annual contracts that won’t even extend into 2020, let alone trans-Pacific contracts signed as of May 1, 2019, that will extend well into 2020. That may well be so, but ocean carriers' track record is less promising.