The Soviet Union is pressing the United States for both trade credits and joint business ventures for exporting goods to the United States or to other nations.

A top Soviet official visiting here meanwhile predicted that the United States and the Soviet Union will build on their just-signed trade pact by negotiating a series of industry-by-industry cooperation agreements, besides a new tax treaty and an investment agreement.Possible U.S. business problems with the trade agreement started to emerge here, however. American pharmaceutical companies fear that the agreement does not give them the patent protection they feel they need.

Separately, Yuriy N. Chumakov, the Soviets' deputy minister of foreign economic relations, said that the Supreme Soviet legislature would not take up an emigration bill until this fall.

The bill, he said, raises "economic problems," because Soviet emigres are demanding compensation in hard currency for property they leave behind in the Soviet Union.

But, he assured a meeting arranged by the Washington International Trade Association, "everyone in the Soviet Parliament is for free emigration."

He cited high-level assurances from Moscow that the Supreme Soviet would pass the emigration bill.

The bill's passage is critical to the United States' normalizing trade relations with the Soviet Union. President Bush has said he will not submit the U.S.-Soviet trade pact to Congress until the bill, which would codify the Soviet Union's recent liberalized emigration policy, becomes law.

Mr. Chumakov, a key Soviet trade negotiator, made clear that his government considers U.S. export credits a must, if U.S.-Soviet trade is to expand substantially, once the Soviets receive U.S. "most-favored-nation' ' trade benefits or lower tariffs.

"We have the right to receive U.S. Commodity Credit Corp. credits during this hard period (of economic reform)," he said.

He also suggested that if U.S. companies are to compete with West Europeans in the Soviet market, they will have to offer five- to eight-year export credits, presumably with the assistance of the U.S. Export-Import Bank.

"West European countries are offering us three or four times more credit than we really need," Mr. Chumakov said.

At the same time, he said, the Soviet Union is not about to let its $3.5 billion annual trade deficit with the United States expand.

To help prevent a bigger deficit, he said, the Soviet Union hopes to attract more U.S. companies into joint production ventures, largely to export to the United States and other hard currency countries.

Mr. Chumakov also promoted the idea of selling surplus Soviet military rockets to U.S. companies for satellite launchings. "This would be cheap for the American companies and bring them a good profit. And why should we throw our rockets away?"

The Soviet official predicted that the general U.S.-Soviet trade accord will be followed by a series of industrial pacts between the two countries in such sectors as textiles, food processing equipment and other "light" industries.