Shipping's Chain Reaction

Once upon a time, ocean carriers operated alone, each offering a specific type and level of service. This proved unsustainable because shippers expanded their demands for global service, shipping regulations changed, conferences were eliminated, the size and cost of vessels increased, and operational costs, especially fuel, reached record levels. In a sense, this process bears some resemblance to Sir Isaac Newton’s Third Law: Every reaction has an equal and opposite reaction.
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